The competitiveness of a region depends on far-sighted industrial development policies. Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) help identify new value chains worth developing from the collaboration of two or more industrial sectors present in a region. However, putting the S3 model into practice is often difficult. The S3-4AlpClusters project developed its S3 innovation model in order to overcome four major obstacles to effective smart specialisation: identifying opportunities, prioritising development options, activating need-based cooperation between regions and finally achieving the desired smart industrial transition.